Along with the Battle of Saalfeld 1806 napoleonic scenario, WR and Daniel have arranged for a larger post war May 1945 scenario called “Operation Overcast” 1945. This scenario is a different mold for WR’s normal Flames of War (20mm) scenarios; not historical but a hypothetical scenario with possible combative action between former allies the United States and their opposite number the Soviet Red Army, with scenario goals not necessary combative but the seeking of former German military technology itself, and most importantly, their inventive human technicians. Toss in the streams of German refugees, escaped concentration camp population, fanatical “Nazi SS” diehards to cause trouble, models representative of the advanced German technology on the tabletop, and the horrors of post war German still under the deaden atmosphere of the war’s end.
WR intends to use this updating blog post to show some of the steps WR completes to bring a convention level Flames of War (20mm) scenario to life. Each week WR hopes to update this blog article with news of forward progress towards the Operation Overcast scenario, the unit miniatures needed or painted from bare plastic or lead, reference material collected, scenario written up, model and terrain construction, and the long list of small but incremental steps towards a “hoped for” successful scenario game. At the same time, another concurrent running progressive blog article will cover the Saalfeld 1806 scenario planned for October 1st, at the same convention.
Look for the dated updates [xx/xx/17] below as WR adds to article text.
Here is the Operation Overcast scenario notes (.doc) file: Operation Overcast 1945 Scenario notes
Forward then…. the time start line for Operation Overcast scenario is the final German surrender document ending all the active combative operations. Signed at Reims France on May 7, 1945, the Second World War ended on May 8th (or 9th in USSR). Before this date the major power; USA, Britain, and the Soviet Union all had active special operations in progress, with their forward armies, and behind the German lines. These special operations; small fast-moving columns of light vehicles, well armed soldiers, and veteran hand-picked officers regarded for their military and scientific knowledge, comb the open and enclosed German countryside for hidden technological hardware and the scientific brains behind the wonder weapon design.
Post 8/4/17: Some high brow background material. The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) established the first secret recruitment program, called Operation Overcast, and hence the name for this scenario, initially “to assist in shortening the Japanese war and to aid our postwar military research.” The term “Overcast” was the name first given by the German scientists’ family members for the housing camp where they were held in Bavaria. In September 1945, the JCS established the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) to directly oversee Operation Overcast and later Operation Paperclip. In November 1945, Operation Overcast was renamed Operation Paperclip by Ordnance Corps (United States Army) officers, who would attach a paperclip to the folders of those rocket experts whom they wished to employ in America. President Truman formally approved Operation Paperclip in a secret directive, circulated on September 3, 1946.
The later Operation Paperclip was the secret United States Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) program in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians (many of whom were formerly registered members of the Nazi Party and some of whom had leadership roles in the Nazi Party) were recruited and brought to the United States for government employment from post-Nazi Germany (after World War II). The primary purpose for Operation Paperclip was for the U.S. to gain a military advantage in the burgeoning Cold War, and later Space Race, between the U.S. and Soviet Union. By comparison, the Soviet Union were even more aggressive in recruiting Germans; during their Operation Osoaviakhim, Soviet military units forcibly (at gunpoint) recruited 2,000+ German specialists to the Soviet Union during one night and sent them east. WR will add more dated scenario background material on future updating posts below.
This Flames of War (20mm) scenario has a large “build and paint” list of projects, especially compared to the other napoleonic Saalfeld 1806 scenario which has the majority of the terrain on hand (in collections) and miniatures painted. The list and expanded details of completion will be regularly posted to this updating blog article as WR and Daniel finish them:
I ) Building and tabletop terrain structures start the construction (modeling list):
Collection of concentration camp buildings including: Prisoner barracks, guard towers, guard barracks, and electrical wire fencing.
Airport: Runways, airplane storage reverts, control tower, flak positions. Airport support vehicles maybe.
Tank research and design: Workshops and labs, Electrical grid stations and power transmission towers, gun ranges, vehicle testing areas. (E-Series / Maus for example).
Advance weapon research: Radar testing tower, “Ray gun”, I/R devises, advance handheld A/A missiles (Luftfaust), Fritz-x guided bombs, Stg-44 assault rifles etc..
Advanced rocketry: V1, V2, V3, and other advanced designs and underground (in mountain Mttelwerk) V2 or V4 factory. Wire fence surrounds the complex.
SS research center: This sector cannot be mentioned till convention day.
General buildings and storage tanks. Oil and gas tanks, sector fencing, and paved roadway. Some pictured below.
II ) Miniatures and Vehicles:
Complete required Russian vehicles, including IS-2 tank collection and Russian recon procurement (special services) Gaz teams. Complete any necessary repairs or touch up paint on Russian late war miniature collection.
German SS “fanatics” teams, concentration camp guards, German refugee columns, factory workers and other scenario team specialists.
The prize German technical and scientists teams which both the Soviets and American seek, information and planning design blueprint for sought after technology markers.
American recon and Special procurement (Special services) jeep teams. Complete any necessary repairs or touch up paint on American late war miniature collection.
Modelling completed for several special static display models:
III ) Scenario write-up, tabletop map (16×6′ table), and creative rules to handle a possible three-way tabletop situations involving American, Russians, and Nazi SS fanatics… plus static or random movement of the “interference” teams…..technician or scientist teams, German refugees, local population, and escaped allied or civilian prisoners.
8/9/17: Update. Last night WR completed his power distribution station with its perimeter fencing and groundwork. Rarely seen on a tabletop game, having an electrical grid or high voltage transmission towers on a scenario tabletop will be a change of scenery for WR. Next project the three electrical transmission towers to bring the “juice” to the substation and the German workshops, project village, and other secret installations of course.
8/11/17: Started some tabletop terrain and equipment kit construction. Finished a simple V-1 bomb kit from the old 1/72 Frog and Spitfire mk14 box. At the same time WR built the simple Spitfire mk14 airplane for some future game. Next some more missiles or rockets for the “Mittelwerk” rocket factory sector zone: a EMW A9 rocket, a different version or EMW A4b rocket, another V2 rocket (Condor kit) to add to the two already built, plus some launching support vehicles, like a Opel Blitz T. Stofftankwagen for example.
8/19/17 Update: Been working on the “Mittelwerk” sector of Operation Overcast 1945 scenario. Mittelwerk was the late war V2 rocket factory built underground for the expanded production of V2 rockets. For the scenario the “Mittelwerk” is background scenic terrain for the scenario gamers to seek advanced German rocket intelligence and technology, by entering the tunnel, and searching nearby for the technology, equipment, and weapons. To represent the actual “underground factory” mountain on the tabletop WR located a model railroad HO scale straight tunnel section from a national internet hobby store (Omnimodels Hobbies) and easy to locate on Ebay from other sellers for about $20.00. At the same time, since Omnimodels runs a free shipping policy for orders over $69, WR ordered two interesting HO scale rocky ridge terrain pieces to go with the RR tunnel, plus some painting and Woodland scenic supplies to bulk up the order. As pictured below, the tunnel is large, 26 inches in length and about 10 inches in height. Alongside the molded tunnel are the two “rocky ridge” terrain pieces, the small and large size. All come finished, flocked and painted as shown.
Rocky Ridges Large 9″x25″ C1320 (about $16.00)
Rocky Ridges Small 6″x14.5″ C1321 (about $13.00)
HO-Scale Straight Tunnel, 16.5″w x 26″ C1310 (about $20.00)
Well if you have a missile factory, you need the scale modelled rockets too. WR has a wide selection of testing V1, basic V2, plus futuristic V4 and V9 rockets for the research factory and nearby workshops. Picture below are the kits: V-1 launch site, several V1’s, three V2 rockets, one with visible interior fittings, the V4 and V9 experimental rockets and support launch stands and transport trailers. Not pictured are the fuel storage tanks, LOX trailers, and the 20mm miniature technicians teams, all waiting to be captured by the roving American or Soviet scientific survey / groups.
8/28/17 Update: Finished the six HO scale electrical transmission towers with paintwork, shading, and final tabletop basing. Found these six towers searching on Ebay over several weeks, at a much reduced price (60% off), compared to the normal retail RR model pricing. Two old brands; Cornerstone No. 933-3121 and ATT No. 603 kits, each with slightly different tower design, but fully comparable for tabletop use. WR has decided that no “wires” will be strung between the unfixed towers as unwary hands will surely knock them. Overall construction was straightforward. Build one face, then another, finally gluing all four sides together then adding the extension arms and drop down white porcelain insulators. Paint is a flat primer gray color with black wash applied. As a sidebar it is interesting internet reading to learn about the evolution of electrical transmission towers, from basic wood poles, to constructed wooden towers, then to various aluminium and steel tower designs. Designs are strongly influenced by the electrical load carried by the transmission wires.
Never climb these towers, avoid touching them in general, or toss any object about near or under them. The electrical loads carried by the overhead wires will surely cause death with wire contact, or in some high voltage cases, indirect electrical field grounding.
Alongside the transmission towers is another general purpose HO scale building, a model of the POLA HO scale brick factory building. For gaming, this HO scale building can be used in many scenarios as a generic building. WR has now three of them, all painted slightly different and could make a small industrial zone on the tabletop if desired.
9/4/17 Update: Busy Labor Day weekend for WR and Daniel. The layout and basic construction of the small airport completed. WR looked around for basic firm material to lay down on the tabletop and represent asphalt airport runway, taxiways, and open hanger stands for displaying the advanced German aircraft development models, staging from this rural aerodrome. Walking the local DYS hardware store aisles (Lowes), WR eyes, after many failures to locate suitable cheap material, fell back on his old standby…. black vinyl floor tile squares (12″). These stiff vinyl tiles were cut to 8×12″ shapes, the excess 4″ strip used as “half” taxiways or placed back to back for additional runway length. Four 6×6″ black vinyl shapes cut from one tile piece creates the open hanger stands for aircraft parking. Each vinyl piece lightly sanded to bevel the outside edge to blend into the tabletop. To finish the vinyl runway surface, a light sanding to roughen the smooth surface, then dusting of black and gray spray paint. WR hasn’t decided if the runway will have painted lines. More static rockets, bombs, and missiles models been built for display around the static aerodrome. These missile weapon system will add to the technology race and collection attempts by the American and Soviets, along with the advanced German aircraft designs positioned on the aerodrome and the critical scientists and technicians. A control tower from the old RAF Airfix kit, draped with some camouflage netting material, will oversee stilled aerodrome flight operations.
Missiles and rockets completed from the two Condor 1/72 kits include: Messerschmitt “Enzian”, Blohm & Voss Bv-246 “Hagelkorn”, Blohm & Voss L-10, Henschel Hs-293, and Kramer X-1 or “Fritz X” guided bomb. While WR finished up those missile models, he found two more versions of the V1 to build (old Heller kit); a Fi 103 “Reichenberg” IV piloted V1 and the Ba 349A Natter. All built and heading for the painting department.
As the aerodrome material was drying, the V1 launching ramp and several V1 flying bombs, including piloted models collection, was completed. WR found an old cheap Armageddon V1 site model on Ebay several month ago. What he was going to do with the V1 model was unknown back then…. but now this unique model will take some space on the tabletop. The model comes with retaining concrete walls, a concrete bunker, the launcher ramp rail, two V1 flying bombs, and various equipment to launch the missiles. The V1 complex will become another technology point of contention for the Americans and Soviet search teams to seek advanced technology design, blueprints, and information, along with the nearby scientists and technicians.
09/6/17 Update: Finished the construction of two German aircraft; the Arado Ar 234C-3/C-4 Lighting DML kit and Arado Ar (E) 555 Revell kit bomber kits, now heading towards the warren painting department. With close inspection the Arado Ar (E) 555 looks just like the plane of Indiana Jones Raiders of the Lost Ark fame without the props.
Next project is the corner of the large Dora concentration camp. This camp housed and provided the forced labor for the nearby German V2 missile Mittelwerk factory. The paper buildings plans came from the Stalag III project paper building kit. Choosing the basic prisoner hut design, two of these cut out paper buildings were constructed by Daniel while WR built the German barrack and “cooler” building to place behind the wire fence and empty wooden guard towers.
9/8/17 Update: Construction of the chain link fencing was a several stage process. First step: WR found some stainless steel mesh on Ebay with a 10 openings per inch grid size. This mesh is flexible and can bend when pressure is applied. Come in various sizes and lengths, WR purchased a sheet of roughly 24″ by 12″ for his electrical transmission substation surrounding fence and to create 9x 24″ by 1″ lengths (in total 18′). The scenario tabletop has four chain link fencing lengths…. 12″, 8″, 6″, and 4″ to use. The different lengths will give flexibility for the tabletop and allow several damaged sections (4″ length) to substitute. Step Two: Locate some lengths of molding to base the fence. WR used a 3/4″ strip of flat curb molding, cut to the lengths mentioned above. WR painted the lengths with his background green tabletop color. Drill out the fence post holes with two-inch spacing and one hole at each end of the length. Step Three: WR used piano wire cut to 1.75″ length for the fence posts. These wire bits had their upper 3/8″ bent at angle for the barbed wire attachment before gluing each post, all aligned in same direction with epoxy glue. Step Four: Cut the chain link mesh lengths to match the wood molding lengths with 1″ width. Apply a light cost of epoxy glue to each post and lay the mesh on the posts. Apply more epoxy glue through the mesh opening to contact the wire post behind (drip through). Apply pressure as needed to firmly glued and set. Step Five: Wrap a length of “barbed wire” looking wire strung along the posts at the bent post portion. Apply glue as needed. Flock and finish the wood molding to match tabletop and stray a sealing clear coat.
9/12/17 Update: Changed production schedule a bit. Decided to finish up painting the Dora concentration camp prisoner teams or bases to populate the wire fenced camp area and the V2 Mittelwerk factory mountain. Plans are to have 24 teams in total with five to six ex-RAF. ex-USAAF, or ex-Luftwaffe 20mm personal miniatures, from the old Airfix HO/OO range, on each team base. Mixed into these team bases WR plans to have several scientist or technicians hidden among the prisoner teams. For the opposing side… so to speak, several prisoner teams will be hidden SS die-hard fanatic teams to cause havoc during the scenario. Take your chances when “interviewing” these teams. The teams will be similar and in aspects different looking… and it will up to the gamers to determine which is who or what. Some are mobile…ie.. can move via random tabletop dice rolling, others are stationary and cannot move, thereby remain in the camp. While paint dried on the miniatures, WR built and painted up the control tower to the Luftwaffe research testing aerodrome. This building kit is the old RAF control tower kit from the vintage Airfix HO range.
09/18/17 Update: Completed the 1945 Operation Overcast scenario tabletop map today. This is a big tabletop scenario with a full 16′ x 6′ tabletop surface area. Looking at the map below, the map has basically three major sectors to divide the tabletop action. At left, the Kummersdorf II proving grounds and workshops. Center is Filegerhorst Kaufbeuren, a Luftwaffe research aerodrome in southern Germany at war end. At right, the combined Camp Dora and Mittelwerk rocket factory. Not your typical wargame tabletop. Apart from several specialized buildings, the tabletop will have V1 and V2 launching ramps or pads, the Mittelwerk is a factory under the hill, Camp Dora will have former prisoners teams to confuse the gamers. Chain wire fence, fuel tanks, a radar tower, electrical transmission towers, ending in an electrical substation to provide power to the former Nazi scientists and technicians. Then there will be the die-hard SS teams lurking about. Players should note that the map has no “north” or compass. This allows both the Americans and Soviets to enter the tabletop from any table edge with their searching teams, with one or two exceptions (restricted areas), at scenario start. There is no “safe edge” until actual combative actions take place, then determination of entry points for arriving or summoned reinforcements is made.
09/20/17 Update: WR has for many years used his collection of stiff tabletop terrain textured boards to provide the basic 1st elevation level coverage of the scenario table. But when traveling to a convention, WR finds using a cloth cover is quicker and handles the sometime uneven tables (even with shims), which the stiff boards hate. Needing a 16×6 area coverage for Operation Overcast, WR purchased three painter’s drop cloths (6×9) and some green and brown spray paint of various shades. Hanging the cloths on a long steel wire, the spray colors are applied in random patterns… sort of basic camouflage look. Five spray colors in all were used: Dark brown, dark green, light green, a tan, and a dull spruce green color for the majority of the cloth surface. When painting, make sure the drop cloth edges are painted as they to show a “line look” if the basic green isn’t applied. Once dry WR intends to give the drop cloths a quick reserve side ironing to remove some of the basic fold lines.
09/23/17 Update: Finished all the German refugee teams and the important scientist / technicians teams for the advanced design aircraft, rockets, missiles, panzers, and other weapons. Each team is numbers and identified underneath to the specific weapon system. There is a special Wernher von Braun miniature to grace the tabletop. Each team also has the tabletop objective location coin or marker to place on tabletop. These coins mark the location and allows a randomization location effect as the coding for the team is hidden on the face down face.
09/25/17 Update: The production line of 1/72 IS-2 tanks. Most are from the old PST line of Russian kits. These models WR built back in YR2014 for another scenario which never came off. So, one of the reasons for Operation Overcast is to force WR to apply the linked tracks to the eighteen IS-2 hull models and finish off the paintwork. So… last weekend the tedious task of gluing track bits was done while watch college football games.
09/27/17 Update: While the IS-2 track link glue production is ongoing and expected to finish tonight, WR decided to upgrade his artillery bombardment marker with some larger blast effect markers. Construction is basic and common to the design of many wargamers hobbyists. Wooden circular base which five (5) strands of 4′ cut length wire epoxy into pre-drilled holes. When dry, start the process of stuffing poly fiber fill into the wire framework applying PVC white glue as needed. WR then dripped and brushed more PVC glue to texture the fiber with some “solid” blasted looked material. Glued a heavy metal washer on base to give stability on tabletop. Finish next with smaller “fill in poly fiber pieces as needed. To paint…. primer grey undercoat, then flat black to darken. Maybe a touch of browns and flash flame at base to taste.
09/28/17 Update: Just posted the Operation Overcast final draft Scenario Notes file (.doc) at top of blog article. This document outlines the scenario on the tabletop. Below are the roughly 6,000 point (per side) available forces and units for the scenario. The German scientist, technicians, SS platoon, General Kammler, former prison guards, Gestapo teams, ex-prisoner teams, and the refugee teams are not included in the above available force points.
Order of battles (OOB):
American complete OOB [6055 pts.]: All Americans are “Confident Veteran” rated unless noted:
Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) Unit: (rated “Fearless Veteran”)
- 4x JIOA platoons (Cmd SMG, 6x rifle teams, M2 60mm mortar) [4×200 pts.]
9th US Armored Division, 2nd Tank Battalion Company:
- CO HQ (CinC and 2iC in M4a3 late and attached M26 Super Pershing) [480 pts.]
- 3x M26 Pershing platoons (5x M26 Pershing each) [3×985 pts.]
- Armored mortar platoon (Cmd, 3x M4 81mm MMC H/T, M3a1 w/50cal H/T) [110pts.]
- Sherman M4a3 late 76mm platoon (3x Sherman M4a3 76mm) [415 pts.]
9th US Armored Division Armored Rifle Company:
- Co HQ (Cmd and 2iC carbine, Bazooka, M3a1 w/50cal H/T and jeep) [40 pts.]
- 3x AR platoons (Cmd, 5x rifle teams, 5x Bazooka, M2 60mm mortar, 2x M1919 LMG, 4x M3a1 H/T, M3a1 w/50cal H/T) [3×295 pts.]
Transport pool of trucks available for use by any American company, including tank platoons, to move captured teams:
- Transport pool (16x GMC trucks) [Free]
Attached off table artillery batteries on call:
- 2x Field artillery battery (4x M2a1 105mm cannon, observer / jeep on table) [2×185 pts.]
Soviet complete OOB [5930 pts.]: All Russians are rated “Fearless trained” unless noted:
NKVD Special Branch Unit: (rated “Fearless Veteran”)
- NKVD Hero Spetsnaz platoon (Cmd SMG, 4x SMG, 3x captured German H/T) [170pts.]
- 3x Hero Razvedki platoons (Cmd rifle/mg, 5x rifle/mg, 3x M3a1 AC) [3x145pts.]
Red Banner Guard Division:
- Hero Motostrelkovy battalion HQ (Cmd and 2iC rifle, Commissar) [45pts.]
- 3x Hero Motostrelkovy companies (Cmd SMG, 9x SMG, 3x SMG/panzerfaust, 2x HMG teams) [3x355pts.]
- Hero Mortar company (Cmd rifle, observer, 6x 82-BM-41 mortars, 6x trucks) [125pts.]
Red Banner Guard Tank Division:
- Hero Guard Heavy Tank battalion HQ (Cmd IS-2 obr 1944) [140pts.]
- 3x Hero Guard Heavy Tank companies (3x IS-2 obr 1944) [3x450pts.]
- Hero Guard Assault gun company (3x ISU-122) [355pts.]
- Hero Guard Assault gun company (3x ISU-152) [315pts.]
Hero Tankovy Battalion:
- Hero Tankovy HQ (Cmd T34/85 obr 1944) [85pts.]
- 3x Hero Tankovy companies (4x T34/85 obr 1944) [3x375pts.]
Transport pool of trucks available for use by any Soviet platoon or company, including tank platoons, to move captured teams:
- Transport pool (16x Zis trucks) [Free]
Attached off table artillery batteries on call:
- 2x Hero Artillery battalions (8x 76mm Zis-2 guns, 4x 122mm obr 1938, observer w/jeep on table) [2x360pts.]
German complete OOB. All German die-hard SS teams are rated “Fearless Veteran.” Former prison guards teams are “Reluctant Trained” rated.
- General Hans Kammler (Obergruppenfuhrer CMD SMG)
- SS Platoon (Cmd Assault rifle / panzerfaust, 4x assault rifle / panzerfaust)
- 3x Gestapo team (Gestapo team SMG)
- 4x Prisoner guards (Cmd rifle, 3x rifle teams)
Stationary inactive German models of: Ar (E) 555 “New York bomber”, Me P-1111, Ar 234C-3/C-4 “Lighting”, Fi 103 “Reichenberg IV”, Me-328 V1/V2, Lippisch P.13a, and Fw Ta-183 “Huckebein” plus a selection of German missile systems.
Stationary inactive panzer models of: E-50 with Rheintochter 1 missile, E-100 StuG gun (128mm), Maus, E-100. P-245-010 “Jaguarundi”, Geschutzwagen 638/18 SF Ardelt “Waffentrager”, and Panzer E-25.
Just finished the artillery bombardment markers and fresh from the spray paint booth. Three spray colors were used. Flat black, primer light grey, and a tan brown color. These poly fiber and wire 4-5 inch high blast markers will give the bombardment photos some “effect” showing the heavy pounding the poor target is undergoing.
09/28/17 Update: Finished off the Russian IS-1 and IS-2 PST tank models. One company of five IS-1 or IS-85 at left, then two five tank platoons of IS-2 obr 1943. The extra IS-2 models will become battalion commanders or maybe a warrior manned miniature. Basically this leaves the static aircraft hardware model to paint and apply decals tomorrow or late tonight to complete the scenario miniatures for Operation Overcast.
09/29/17 Update: The finished aircraft, missiles and rockets. Pictured below are:
Aircraft upper row: Ar (E) 555 “New York bomber”, Me P-1111, Ar 234C-3/C-4 “Lighting”.
Lower row: V-1 Flying bomb, Fi 103 “Reichenberg IV”, Me-328 V1/V2, Kramer X-1 “Fritz X”, Lippisch P.13a, and Fw Ta-183 “Huckebein”.
Missiles upper row: EMW A9, EMW A4b, A4 / V2, and EMW C2 “Wasserfall”.
Lower row, Me “Enzian”, Hs-293, Bv L-10, Bv-246 “Hagelkorn”, and Ba-349a “Natter”.
The final production of the advance panzer designs: Features starting on top row with the E-50 with Rheintochter 1 missile. Next row has the E-100 StuG gun (128mm), two Maus, and two E-100 models. Third row has the P-245-010 “Jaguarundi”, Geschutzwagen 638/18 SF Ardelt “Waffentrager”, and Panzer E-25 tanks. The 1/72nd scale models are ACE, ModelCollect, Pegasus, or Dragoon.
09/30/17 Update: The Operation Overcast complete tabletop set up. A general view of the models (rockets, panzers, and missiles) in position, the specialized terrain, the Camp Dora with ex-prisoners, the Mittelwerk mountain, the new buildings for scenario, and the initial hidden placement of the German scientist and technicians with die-hard SS, Gestapo, or prison camp guards mixed in and location marked by small coin like markers.
Unless I have forgotten something, this should conclude the preparation blog report updates for WR’s Operation Overcast scenario. This morning… the scenario is in play at the HMGS-PSW regional convention. Tired WR gives cheers of completion from the warren and modeller’s workbench, then the scenario write-up to follow.